Wednesday, November 30, 2005

Taxonomy and Categorization

TITLE: Build It So They Can Find It: The practical uses of building a business taxonomy
SOURCE: AIIM E-Doc Magazine 19 no2 22, 24-5 Mr/Ap 2005
By Theresa Regli

TITLE: Implementing a Taxonomy Solution
SOURCE: AIIM E-Doc Magazine 19 no2 25-6 Mr/Ap 2005
By Paula Lederman

TITLE: The Value of Categorization
SOURCE: AIIM E-Doc Magazine 18 no4 16-18 Jl/Ag 2004
By Nathaniel Palmer and Carl Frappaolo

Tuesday, November 29, 2005

Digital libraries and reference services: present and future

This article shows how reference services are provided to users in a digital library. I found this article through the Mullen library's e-journals. Therefore, when you reach this article through the link, you need your last name and CUA ID number.

Pages in Rubin

The pages in the below are what Dr. Gardner mentioned. If I missed any pages, please add what you know to these pages. :)

* Information:
p. 43, 68 (knowledge management), 302 (Goreman's idea), 304, 306 (5 laws)

* Digital Millenium Copyright Act:
p. 142, 145-6, 147, 149, 150

* Codes of Ethics:
p. 203

* Media Consolidation:
p. 3

The Future of Libraries: Beginning the Great Transformation

This article presents a very brief history of libraries and describes the changes they have undergone. It discusses 10 trends and makes 4 recommendations. Related topics are library as place and technological trends. Will libraries transition from a center of information to a center of culture?

Monday, November 28, 2005

Media Consolidation

We talked briefly about media consolidation at our last meeting. Attached is the link to the site Dr. Gardner shared with. It basically shows you who owns what. Dr. Gardner's point was that thera are only few companies that own a majority of media outlets.

Sunday, November 27, 2005

"Library as Place" articles

These 2 articles are too large to print out. Please go to their links and peruse them.

J Med Libr Assoc. 2004 January; 92(1): 6–13.
Copyright © 2004, Medical Library Association
Being there: the library as place*
Frieda Weise, M.L.S., AHIP, FMLA, Executive Director1
1Health Sciences and Human Services Library University of Maryland, Baltimore 601 West Lombard Street Baltimore, Maryland 21201
Frieda Weise:
"The value of the library as place is examined in this Janet Doe Lecture. The lecture, which is intended to focus on the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship, presents an overview of the library as a place in society from ancient times to the present. The impact of information technology and changes in the methods of scholarly publication from print to digital are addressed as well as the role of the library as the repository of the written historical record of cultures. Functions and services of libraries are discussed in light of the physical library facility of the future. Finally, librarians are asked to remember the enduring values of librarianship in planning libraries of the future."

Library as Place: Rethinking Roles, Rethinking Space
Council on Library and Information resources

Friday, November 25, 2005

Government Documents: Adding Value Discussion from Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) Conference October 2005

GPO stands for US Government Printing Office. The GPO administers the FDLP, which is the Federal Depository Library Program...which disseminates government publications to approximately 1,200 depository libraries. The people particpating in this discussion are depository coordinators...older terms are depository librarians or government documents librarians. I think some of the discussion applies to any library seeking to add value to materials in a budget crunched environment though. Sorry about the formatting difficulties...I might edit it if I have time.

Adding Value


Delivery of government information to a diverse user population is the core principle of the program. Easy to use access tools are necessary to optimize this, as is organizing and positioning collections and tools in such a way that users will encounter them in their general search efforts. This session discussed ways that librarians and GPO can and do add value through creating and distributing various access tools (pathfinders, guides), sharing of resources, and possibly partnering with commercial entities such as Google and National Archive.
New Ideas, Suggestions, Recurring Themes

· Is it the responsibility of the FDL to add value to the program? The consensus was yes and that they all added value wherever they could. Mark Anderson from the University of Northern Colorado thinks that depositories are already required by regulations to add value. Cataloging and providing reference services adds value. In terms of cataloging, sometimes a link in the Marchive record will be outdated and the librarian will need to find the current link to serve a patron. After years of practice, a reference librarian can provide a very high level of expert assistance that adds a lot of value to the collection and program. In addition to locating resources and being familiar with agencies and trends, they can also interpret, filter, and highlight some of the information. Web pages are also designed to provide easy access to library guides, etc.

· What are ways that FDLs add value?

o Jim Gillespie, Johns Hopkins University: “Re-aggregating” existing data to make new information products is a way to add value.
o Ms. Klair said cataloging and processing documents as a regional consortium adds value and saves time and effort for the selectives.
o Add more Spanish materials for populations that have a high percentage of Hispanic immigrants.
o Knowing the local community’s needs and having good referral skills if your library cannot meet those needs.
o Mr. Fredericks: The FDLP is great for advocating for access to public information.
o Rebecca Knight, University of Delaware Library: Librarians are actually adding more value in the electronic environment than they did in the paper world because research guides are published on the Internet for all to see.
o Richard Akeroyd: Finding fugitives and adding them various databases.
o Mary Prophet: providing special computers for government information access.
o Mark Gooch, College of Worcester Libraries: Retrospective cataloging and digitization projects. Maybe hosting light archives.
o Kate Holvoet, University of Utah: Host things on their servers.
o Grace Ellen McGrann, City College of New York: Would be interest in an extra light archive collection for specific agencies like DOD, DOS.
o Coleen Parmer, Bowling Green State University: Backing up websites…such as old Clinton sites. Valerie Glenn, University of North Texas added that National Archives does a lot of that.
o Mary Prophet, Dennison University: Taking raw data, creating good tables, making the information more accessible and usable.
o Mary Jane Walsh, Colgate University: New York is trying to get depository holdings of different schools in a consortium.

· What if staffing and funding shortages make it impossible to keep up with adding value? How do they keep up with such a vast amount of information? What about small libraries?

o Janet Fisher, Arizona State University: Partnering with other libraries in the neighboring areas was a value adding option. Her example was creating tutorials for products, asking area libraries to test them, and doing usability tests, etc.
o Jan Comfort, Clemson University: We should not expect all libraries to add value in the same way because of various limitations. Tom Fischlschweiger, Broward County Library added that if you place too many demands on some libraries, the burdens might become heavy enough for them to leave the program.
o Rick McKinney, Federal Reserve Board Law Library: Talked about enhancing the value of the Federal Register and Congressional Record by creating guides and linking them to come up high on relevance rankings through Google.
o Kate Holvoet, University of Utah: Promotion, talking it up to faculty, websites.
o Larry Meyer, San Bernardino County Law Library: Volunteering some hours on the consortium (online reference?). Familiarity with local issues.
o Kristin Leonard, Indiana University, Kokomo and Mary Jane Walsh, Colgate University: Mentoring new professionals and even older professionals who need help answering certain types of questions for patrons.
o Coleen Parmer, Bowling Green State University: small libraries have a good sense of their population.
o Julie Linden, Yale University: Questioned implication that large libraries should contribute more than small libraries because a large library could have a tight budget.
o Mikes Hughs, Quinnipiac University: Cost savings are not as big for smaller libraries in the electronic environment.

· Collaborate and share content so that valuable resources are not underutilized.
o McKinley Sielaff, Colorado College: A fugitive documents model had been discussed which would enable librarians who found fugitives to report them back to a bigger system. Collaborative examples from two universities were mentioned: the University of Oregon puts information from old floppy disks online and the University of Texas works with CRS publications.
o She also suggested that there be a way to register, possibly through GPO, what projects everyone is working on encourage “collective collection development models and sharing.” Michael Fry shared this desire. IT was said that GODORT already has some part in these kinds of information sharing efforts.
o Amy West, University of Minnesota: Identify guides and research tools that already exist and refrain from creating new ones that will only increase the quantity of items available rather than quality. In many cases, another guide can be tweaked if need be rather than completely re-written. Take advantage of the “cooperative tradition.”

· Added value? Steve Hayes, University of Notre Dame: “Adding value” implies that there is no value to begin with. He thought “enhancing value” was preferable language.

· Should federal depository libraries seek to partner with Internet memory organizations, like Google, Memory Hole, Internet Archive, dozens, to provide government information?
o Tim Morton, University of Virginia: Encouraged use of the Internet Archive. It will take snapshots of websites, save them, and make them available online (safeguarding them in case something happens locally). He also suggested that cataloging records be put up on the Internet Archive.
o David Cismowski, California State University: Mentioned a project that Google has with OCLC to provide quick access to Worldcat records through Google searches. Another goal of a partnership could be preservation.
o Michael Fry encouraged caution in terms of enlisting Google to help with various efforts because there is already significant overlap in the various indexes and full-text databases that are commonly used. Things are being paid for twice. He also recommended looking at providers like Lexis Nexis and Readex that have a record of providing government information.
o Linda Fredericks, King County Library System: The community should protect their interests by at least being a stakeholder.
o Kevin Reynolds, University of the South: Concerned that Google will not have the same ideology as librarians about how stuff should be handled. And, are people comfortable seeing commercials on their government information?
o Richard Akeroyd said that we don’t question the credibility of news on the basis of there being advertisements coming with it in the form of commercials.
o Kathy Amen, St Mary’s University in San Antonio: People usually only look at the first three Google hits and those come up based on number of visits, so people need to visit each other’s websites.
o Kristin Leonard, Indiana University, Kokomo: Commercial entities can have more experience with archiving and other services meaning that information and database architecture can be contracted out.

· Where is GPO in this?
o Steve Hayes, Notre Dame University: Suggested that GPO be a “master integrator” for managing online reference services via Instant Messenger across the country. He says that East Coast librarians can cover early morning hours and West Coast staff can cover the later hours so that people could almost always contact “ a live information specialist.”
o Amy West: GPO should provide standards such as basic markup, standard interfaces and some basic programming.
o David Cismowski: A new mechanism should be developed to replace the Consultant Program.
§ GPO (possibly in partnership with libraries) could coordinate and provide a clearinghouse for online tutorials that have been created by the community. It could be heavily advertised.
§ Can GPO try harder to get passwords to proprietary databases in addition to Stat USA to add value?
§ The Strategic Plan talks about manufacturing custom-made datasets to be marketed commercially. Can those be given to depositories free of charge?
o Ms Klair: FRBR needs to be in the Vision document in the technical services section. She also says that GPO should work on crosswalks between marked data into other metadata schemes so that there is more flexibility in the future in cataloging and less duplication. Bibliographic records should include all formats of the work in one record.
o Janet Fisher: GPO should stay away from Sudark.
o Grace York, University of Michigan: GPO should provide “plain vanilla products” and others can add bells and whistles. Others thought GPO should strive for better and not be the least common denominator.
o Kevin Reynolds: If Google were to become more involved, could GPO play a role in guaranteeing authenticity of documents being circulated?
o Jan Reagan, State Library of NC: GPO should explore partnerships with Google, Internet Archive, etc.
o Grace York, University of Michigan: doesn’t want GPO involved with the Internet Archive projects because in the past, they have taken things down because they were politically hot topics.
o Julie Wallace, University of Minnesota: “The government information is much too important to leave in the hands of the government.”
o Holvoet: Says that GPO is charged with distributing information and that is what they do, but there isn’t so much evidence to suggest that it’s GPO’s responsibility to do retrospective digitization projects. It might be up to libraries and GPO could be a partner.
o Mr Gooch: GPO should at least coordinate digitization projects. He hopes GPO would take the lead with working with Internet Archive because of GPO’s expertise.
o Jo Anne Beezley, Pittsburgh State University: GPO needs to provide timely cataloging records, training to all librarians, and an advertising/marketing program.
o Ms. McCrann: Just wants GPO to fix what they already have and wants the ILS up.
o Julie Wallace, University of Minnesota: Wants the old monthly catalogs fully digitized and searchable so people can finish cooperative cataloging projects.
o Kate Holvoet, University of Utah: Enhanced training, not just with conferences, but in the form of contact lists to help them connect with agencies to obtain specialized training.
o Mr. Gooch: TRAINING!

Questions Posed To Council
· N/A

Additional Information
· Maureeen Booth, Department of Interior Library: Pay attention to the platform that information is saved on and distributed on. Her CD-Roms have no platform. Also suggested getting away from mindset that librarians should give away control of their expertise, products, and the materials that they provide maintenance for.
· Mr. Gooch says that his group wanted to elevate the deep web to an accessible area.
· Kay Collins, University of California, Irvine: More money, time, and staff is needed for these projects. Where from? Congress, grants, ?

Dr. Bateman

Dr. Bateman is willing to meet with us. However, she has not selected a specific date. She will email me with a date and I will pass it along ASAP.

Title: Colorado State Library Talks Virtual Reference.
Author: Rogers, Michael
Citation: Library Journal 9/15/2005, Vol. 130 Issue 15, p25-25
Year: 2005

“The article offers a look at virtual reference services discussed at the Colorado State Library symposium. Virtual reference collaboratives quickly are gaining ground. The Colorado State Library (CSL) recently hosted a Denver symposium devoted to the subject, which revealed that steady growth in usage is the norm, with volume doubled in some states over last year. In 2002, CSL hosted a Collaborative Virtual Reference Symposium in Denver, designed to help state library agencies and other consortia launch their own services. A follow-up symposium drew 120 attendees from 25 states, Australia, Canada, and Kosovo who came to learn and share their experiences at the international, national, state, and consortial levels. A dynamic keynote by Stephen Abram, vice president of innovation at SirsiDynix, set the tone for the meeting by challenging participants with a wide array of new technologies and future trends from beyond the library field.”

ABRAM, Stephen


REFERENCE services (Libraries)


STATE libraries -- Reference services

ELECTRONIC reference services (Libraries)

INTERNET in library reference services
ISSN: 0363-0277

Title: Reference X Appeal.
Author: LaGuardia, Cheryl
Library Journal 9/15/2005, Vol. 130 Issue 15, p28-28

“The article offers information about electronic services for libraries. Google Print will stop scanning copyrighted titles until November 2005. Xreferplus is an online reference aggregator that has grown from 121 reference books to 169 reference tools in 21 different subject areas: art, biography, business, conversions, dictionaries, encyclopedias, food, geography, history, language, law, literature, medicine, music, philosophy, psychology, quotations, religion, science, social sciences, and technology. A search box lets you comb the entire database quickly, and the 21 subject areas appear beneath this for checking one area at a time. Despite confusing displays, this continues to be a great reference product, and the added content has improved it.”

DATABASE searching

ELECTRONIC publishing

LIBRARIES & electronic publishing

REFERENCE services (Libraries)

ELECTRONIC reference sources
ISSN: 0363-0277

Title: Questions in the Library of the Future.
Author: Hisle, W. Lee
Chronicle of Higher Education 9/30/2005, Vol. 52 Issue 6, pB6-B8

"Focuses on the transition in academic libraries of modern times. Digitalization of libraries; Change in the reference work in library services; Future of the reference service in the research work of students; Need for reference librarians to be comfortable with new technologies; Strategies and methods of offering reference services."

ACADEMIC libraries

INFORMATION superhighway

LIBRARY information desks

REFERENCE services (Libraries)

INTERNET in library reference services

ACADEMIC librarians
ISSN: 0009-5982

Thursday, November 24, 2005

Subject Headings

Subject Headings

I don't understand every detail of this first article but it points to the importance and usefullness of subject headings. Subject headings were my greatest discovery in 551 (although this information overlaps with 553 and Collection Development) and I was surprised when I realized how few articles there were out there that dealt with them. I accessed this on WilsonWeb. These are both by Thomas Mann.

Why LC Subject Headings Are More Important Than Ever
American Libraries 34 no9 52-4 O 2003

Library Journal (1976) 130 no12 38-40 Jl 2005

I am posting a 2 page document I wrote for work in which I evaluated a survey given to government documents librarians about the proposed e-LCSH. There is an electronic version of the Library of Congress Subject Headings that is being evaluated and I was the GPO staff person assigned to deal with it. The summary is that librarians prefer print. It is just occuring to me that perhaps librarians don't immediately see the usefullness of subject headings in the electronic environment? 551 really helped me to see their value.

In the survey that was designed to evaluate the new eLCSH, even the people who said that they liked the searchability of the PDF were likely to say that the e-LCSH would not completely displace their print copies as long as they had a choice in the matter. I think LC was hoping to stop producing as many print copies because of the high cost.

I mentioned that from the comments I got on the survey, it seemed that a few of the respondents simply were not skilled in searching and navigating a PDF document. They would sometimes complain about not being able to do something that is possible...they just didn't know how...for example, it is possible to print just a selection of the PDF and not the entire document, but someone didn't know how to do that.

Summary of GPO e-LCSH Survey

Librarians want print!

The majority of respondents (65%) wanted to continue to have the option of the familiar printed volumes of LCSH. Comments were that they were easier to use, were not as intimidating, provided back up when electricity went out or systems were down, and offered people the option of having several volumes open at once on a table. Many who liked the PDF version still wanted the option of getting the printed version. Only 16% of respondents said that they would no longer use the print version with the addition of the e-LCSH and only 25% said that their item selection would change to EL only.

[The pie charts did not copy. The data is:
"How easy is it to use eLCSH?"
17% Extremely Easy
29% Somewhat Easy
26% Moderate
12% Somewhat Difficult
10% Extremely Difficult
6% No Response

"How Will Print Copies Be Affected?"
41% No impact on use of printed copies
36% Might reduce the number of print copies required
16% Would no longer use print copies of eLCSH
7% No response

"Will your library change their selection to EL?" [depository librarians select the materials they wish to receive by format]
65% No
25% Yes
10% no response

How can e-LCSH be improved?

Web accessible- Ensure that the volumes can be accessed online through a webpage and set of links.
Avoid huge downloads and zip files…they kept crashing one person’s computer.
Make it a database.
An electronic version not so tied to print (seems to contradict desire for print?).
Cross reference with hot links.
Increase size and contrast of print.
Also, the size of the file and current format led one person to suggest that it be saved to the library’s server.


It didn’t download properly for everyone and there is a possibility that there is a browser problem.


Have a detailed “how to” document.
Needs to be more intuitive.
It can be intimidating and a Google style search box might be helpful.
Separate files by subject heading.
Weigh search results by relevance instead of only showing them by sentence.
Indicate which section of the document each search result comes from.

Basic PDF Navigation Skills:

Don’t assume that people know how to perform basic functions on PDF. Provide guidance on printing small selections and copying and pasting.

Wednesday, November 23, 2005

Who's who of Library dignitaries

Who’s who

I will put up the mini bios on the BB site, once I have cleaned up the site.

Those names in red are ones that are emphasized.

James H. Billington
Judith Krug
Thomas Jefferson
Eugene P. Sheehy
John Newbery
Melville Louis Kossuth Dewey
Randolph Caldecott
Dr. Shiyali Ramanrita Ranganathan
Minnie Earl Sears
Herbert Putnam - Librarian of Congress for 40 years
Jesse Shera - Founding father of Information Science
Michael Gorman - Library as a place
Charles Cutter
Zoia Horn
Henriette Davidson Avram
Benjamin Franklin
Andrew Carnegie
Carol C. Kuhlthau – psychology of searching
Samuel Green – Reference
John Cotton Dana
Noah Webster
Vannevar Bush - MEMEX

Friday, November 18, 2005

obscene, porn, slander, libel

Obscenity: A legal term referring to information that has
been declared illegal.Information must fail all three
parts of the "Miller Test" in order to be ruled obscene
by the court.
Pornagraphy: refers to sexually explicit material and is
deemed pornagraphic by the standards of the community.
This is not a legal term.
Libel: Printed or written information about someone
(including corporations) that is untrue/false.
Slander: spoken untruths about someone or a corporation.
It is legal to posses libelous materials, but the
offended party can sue the creator of the libel/slander
for punitary damages.

Some definitions: info lit, info, mission statements

What is Information Literacy?1. The ability to find and use information. (Information
Power pg. 1)2. One who is able to recognize when information is
needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and
effectively use the needed information. (ALA Presidential
Commision on Information Literacy)

What is information? Data w/ meaning.

Mission Statement: the summation of what an organization
wishes to accomplish. It puts the members and users of
that org. marching towards the same goal. It should guide
how the org. uses fiscal resources, human resources, and
the facilities.

Thursday, November 17, 2005

RFID ARTICLE for Saturday's discussion

This article on RFID appeared in the Library Philosophy and Practice Vol. 8, No. 1 (Fall 2005). "Use of RFID Technology in Libraries: a New Approach to Circulation, Tracking, Inventorying, and Security of Library Materials." It is by Syed Md. Shahid.

It is available on the web, this is the link:

Sorry this is late, I posted it previously and deleted it because of copyright concerns.

Reference Instruction

The University of South Carolina- Beaufort developed a "bare bones" tutorial for web searching. Again, this is another example of reference instruction. It is interesting to compare this with the Washington State Library "library smart" instruction. How does each "plan" provide for learning theories? Are patron behavior, coginitive skills, and psychology part of the instructional plans?

Information Literacy

Washington State Library has developed Information Literacy training for library staff. This is important, not only for reference librarians, but also for managers who must train paraprofessionals who work at the reference desk. This site provides sample training materials.

Should libraries play tag with RFIDs?

American Libraries, Dec 2003 v34 i11 p69 (3)
Should libraries play tag with RFIDs? Librarians Jackie Griffin and Karen Schneider discuss the benefits and problems of using this hot new technology. (Technology)(Interview) Gordon Flagg.
Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2003 American Library Association

Copyright issues are taken very seriously. Plagiarism is unlawful!

Comps study group members, please respect intellectual property!

Posting Articles: Please do not post whole articles because of copyright issues. Briefly, tell the ‘aboutness’ of the article and give the references.

Posting your notes: they are your property –there is no problem

Posting from textbooks: read the rules of intellectual property in regards to educational purpose before posting anything.

“How is Your Leadership Changing?” by Margaret Wheatley (c2005)

The article lists 10 provoking questions concerning the field of management/organization.
Find the full article at:

Basic information about reference services

I hope this start-up information about reference services reminds you the things you’ve learned through the 553 course.

★ Definition of Reference Services by Samuel Green (1876):
“Personal relations between librarians and readers”
★ Three basic reference functions by Green and examples:
① Information
-Ready Reference Questions
-Bibliographic Verification
-ILL and Document Delivery
-Information and Referral Services
-Research Questions
-Fee-Based Services and Information Brokering
② Guidance
-Readers’ Advisory Services
-Term-Paper Counseling
-Selective Dissemination of Information
③ Instruction
-One-on-One Instruction
-Group Instruction

What is the Best Model of Reference Service by David A. Tyckoson(2001) :
Detailed explanation about reference services based on the Green’s ideas
(You can see this text through the CUA library, so you may need to put your last name and id.)

Changing Reference Service Environment: a Review of Perspectives from Managers, Librarians, and Users by Soo Young Rieh(1999):
Changes in reference services
(You can see this text through the CUA library, so you may need to put your last name and id.)

Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and Information Service Providers by RUSA (Reference and User Services Association):
Guidelines for reference services

Wednesday, November 16, 2005

Authority Records in Reference Service

"Authority Records in Reference Service
Source: Library Mosaics 15 no5 23 S/O 2004 "

Understanding Metadata and Its Purpose

Understanding Metadata and Its Purpose
The Journal of Academic Librarianship 31 no2 160-3 Mr 2005

Metadata- Not Just for Librarians Anymore

Metadata-Not Just for Librarians Anymore
EContent 28 no5 31 My 2005

Monday, November 14, 2005

LSC 553 syllabus - Dr. Pierce

I think this syllabus is very good and it will help with 553 research. It has links to articles, also when you click on the specific "unassignment" it will link you to online resources (most of them are on Aladin but some are not).

Dictionary for Library and Information Science

This is the link to the online version of the Dictionary for Library and Information Science:

Sunday, November 13, 2005

OCLC Research Activities and IFLA's Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records(Website that explains the FRBR project.)
More information